LLM service was tested and validated in 4 EU Member countries (Austria, Greece, Spain and Cyprus). LLM pilots were held in up to five consecutive rounds of testing of 3 months each (exercising periods of 8 weeks and pre and post intervention testing). Testing was focused upon elderly volunteers who provided feedback to help improve the solution to meet user expectations. Testing was conducted in accordance with relevant regulations for the protection of the participants; all test protocols utilise good ethical practices and comply with European and national legislation.

Lessons Learnt
The LLM project has provided a comprehensive approach to validation of the integrated solution, including technical, usability, marketability, and scientific aspects. A methodical evaluation process has been applied to arrive at the overall conclusion that commercial LLM deployment is feasible and that the potential for a sustainable business model is high. Key lessons learnt and their implications for the future development and deployment of LLM include:

Broad distribution will require rigorous planning and testing to ensure availability of appropriately localized systems, including variable availability of hardware components.

A formal product management approach is required to identify and prioritize technical and features/functions of the LLM service to support the future product development process.

Organisational and technical infrastructure is required to achieve a supportable technical deployment, and to ensure systems are aligned with data protection regulations.

User Acceptance

Participants were extremely positive in their responses (across all measures) of LLM. Approximately 84% of the participants who provided feedback described LLM as being easy to learn and use.

Training with the LLM program made 94% of the participants feel mostly positive (they felt it was fun, they liked it, they felt cheerful after training with it, they felt refreshed and calm).

95% of participants believed that exercising through LLM was beneficial for them, most felt LLM was amusing and they enjoyed their sessions with it and LLM met their expectations. The majority of participants felt quite satisfied with LLM.

In large part this positive user acceptance has led to the intention of several LLM partners to continue providing LLM services to users in the piloting environments for some time after the project’s end (AUTH, NKUA, INTRAS, and UCY).

Users have provided, throughout the project’s term, specific feedback that has enhanced usability over the course of the project, and which will be examined to further improve the system in moving into a commercialization phase.


Combined physical exercise and Cognitive Training (full LLM), leads to significant improvements in both episodic memory (the capacity to learn and retain new information) and working memory (the capacity to hold and cognitively manipulate new information) in the elderly.

Longer training durations and more training sessions induces stronger improvements of long-term memory function. Based on this we recommend a continuous training regimen which is associated with long-lasting memory improvements.

Follow up measurements (which continue) are encouraging; they indicate that LLM effect lasts for 6 months; then users need to repeat LLM before 1 year elapses to continue to reap positive impacts.